Markov, Čedomir

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  • Markov, Čedomir (7)
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Na šta mislimo kada kažemo... Aktivizam, digitalno okruženje i pažnja javnosti

Markov, Čedomir

(Beograd : Institut za filozofiju i društvenu teoriju, 2022)

TY  - RPRT
AU  - Markov, Čedomir
PY  - 2022
UR  - http://rifdt.instifdt.bg.ac.rs/123456789/2620
AB  - U ovom radu se razmatra kako aktivisti u Srbiji koriste dostupne digitalne alate da bi obezbedili pažnju javnosti i ostvarili ciljeve za koje se zalažu. Na osnovu pregleda interdisciplinarne literature o aktivizmu u digitalnom okruženju, u prvom delu rada ponuđen je osvrt na ključne mogućnosti i izazove koje su digitalne tehnologije donele aktivistima prilikom informisanja javnosti, izgradnje zajednice i mobilizacije podrške. Nakon toga, analizirano je trenutno stanje u ovoj oblasti u Srbiji i identifikovani su neki od ključnih problema, poput nedovoljne informisanosti i negativnih percepcija javnosti o civilnom sektoru, kao i nedostatka strateškog pristupa komuniciranju aktivista sa javnostima u digitalnom prostoru. Na osnovu pregleda dostupnih podataka i nalaza originalnog istraživanja ponuđene su i preporuke civilnom društvu, donatorima i istraživačima sa ciljem da pomognu aktivistima da delotvornije planiraju i sprovode digitalne komunikacione strategije.
PB  - Beograd : Institut za filozofiju i društvenu teoriju
T2  - Na šta mislimo kada kažemo... dobro društvo?
T1  - Na šta mislimo kada kažemo... Aktivizam, digitalno okruženje i pažnja javnosti
ER  - 
@techreport{
author = "Markov, Čedomir",
year = "2022",
abstract = "U ovom radu se razmatra kako aktivisti u Srbiji koriste dostupne digitalne alate da bi obezbedili pažnju javnosti i ostvarili ciljeve za koje se zalažu. Na osnovu pregleda interdisciplinarne literature o aktivizmu u digitalnom okruženju, u prvom delu rada ponuđen je osvrt na ključne mogućnosti i izazove koje su digitalne tehnologije donele aktivistima prilikom informisanja javnosti, izgradnje zajednice i mobilizacije podrške. Nakon toga, analizirano je trenutno stanje u ovoj oblasti u Srbiji i identifikovani su neki od ključnih problema, poput nedovoljne informisanosti i negativnih percepcija javnosti o civilnom sektoru, kao i nedostatka strateškog pristupa komuniciranju aktivista sa javnostima u digitalnom prostoru. Na osnovu pregleda dostupnih podataka i nalaza originalnog istraživanja ponuđene su i preporuke civilnom društvu, donatorima i istraživačima sa ciljem da pomognu aktivistima da delotvornije planiraju i sprovode digitalne komunikacione strategije.",
publisher = "Beograd : Institut za filozofiju i društvenu teoriju",
journal = "Na šta mislimo kada kažemo... dobro društvo?",
title = "Na šta mislimo kada kažemo... Aktivizam, digitalno okruženje i pažnja javnosti"
}
Markov, Č.. (2022). Na šta mislimo kada kažemo... Aktivizam, digitalno okruženje i pažnja javnosti. in Na šta mislimo kada kažemo... dobro društvo?
Beograd : Institut za filozofiju i društvenu teoriju..
Markov Č. Na šta mislimo kada kažemo... Aktivizam, digitalno okruženje i pažnja javnosti. in Na šta mislimo kada kažemo... dobro društvo?. 2022;..
Markov, Čedomir, "Na šta mislimo kada kažemo... Aktivizam, digitalno okruženje i pažnja javnosti" in Na šta mislimo kada kažemo... dobro društvo? (2022).

Kada kažeš „lažna vest” na šta tačno misliš? Kvalitativna analiza upotrebe izraza „lažna vest” u medijskom izveštavanju u Srbiji

Markov, Čedomir

(Beograd: Udruženje za političke nauke Srbije, 2022)

TY  - CONF
AU  - Markov, Čedomir
PY  - 2022
UR  - http://rifdt.instifdt.bg.ac.rs/123456789/2503
AB  - Cilj ove studije bio je da ponudi dubinski uvid u kontekst koji okružuje upotrebu
pojma lažna vest u medijskom izveštavanju u Srbiji. Na osnovu kvalitativne
analize sadržaja (N = 300) identifikovane su tri teme koje opisuju karakteristike
medijskog diskursa o lažnim vestima. Prva je problematizacija fenomena lažnih
vesti kroz definisanje problema, traženje uzroka, razmatranje posledica i/
ili predlaganje mera u borbi protiv lažnih vesti. Druga vrsta upotrebe upućuje
na instrumentalizaciju ovog izraza u političke svrhe. Treća tema nazvana je
normalizacijom diskursa o lažnim vestima i označava usputnu upotrebu ovog
izraza kao pomodne fraze u različitim kontekstima.
AB  - The goal of this study was to offer in-depth insight into uses of the term “fake
news” in news reporting in Serbia. Based on a qualitative content analysis (N
= 300), three themes emerged describing the key characteristics of the media
discourse on fake news. The first one describes the phenomenon of fake news
as a problem by defining it and identifying its causes, consequences, and potential
measures for fighting it. The second theme describes instrumentalizing
the fake news label for political purposes. The final theme was the normalization
of the fake news discourse, which refers to using the term “fake news” in
passing as an empty buzzword with different meanings in different contexts.
PB  - Beograd: Udruženje za političke nauke Srbije
PB  - Beograd: Univerzitet u Beogradu – Fakultet političkih nauka
C3  - Građani u doba dezinformacija. Zbornik radova sa međunarodne konferencije Udruženja za političke nauke održane 25–26.09.2021. u Beogradu
T1  - Kada kažeš „lažna vest” na šta tačno misliš? Kvalitativna analiza upotrebe izraza „lažna vest” u medijskom izveštavanju u Srbiji
T1  - What do you mean when you say "fake news"? Use of the term "fake news" in news reporting in Serbia – A qualitative analysis
ER  - 
@conference{
author = "Markov, Čedomir",
year = "2022",
abstract = "Cilj ove studije bio je da ponudi dubinski uvid u kontekst koji okružuje upotrebu
pojma lažna vest u medijskom izveštavanju u Srbiji. Na osnovu kvalitativne
analize sadržaja (N = 300) identifikovane su tri teme koje opisuju karakteristike
medijskog diskursa o lažnim vestima. Prva je problematizacija fenomena lažnih
vesti kroz definisanje problema, traženje uzroka, razmatranje posledica i/
ili predlaganje mera u borbi protiv lažnih vesti. Druga vrsta upotrebe upućuje
na instrumentalizaciju ovog izraza u političke svrhe. Treća tema nazvana je
normalizacijom diskursa o lažnim vestima i označava usputnu upotrebu ovog
izraza kao pomodne fraze u različitim kontekstima., The goal of this study was to offer in-depth insight into uses of the term “fake
news” in news reporting in Serbia. Based on a qualitative content analysis (N
= 300), three themes emerged describing the key characteristics of the media
discourse on fake news. The first one describes the phenomenon of fake news
as a problem by defining it and identifying its causes, consequences, and potential
measures for fighting it. The second theme describes instrumentalizing
the fake news label for political purposes. The final theme was the normalization
of the fake news discourse, which refers to using the term “fake news” in
passing as an empty buzzword with different meanings in different contexts.",
publisher = "Beograd: Udruženje za političke nauke Srbije, Beograd: Univerzitet u Beogradu – Fakultet političkih nauka",
journal = "Građani u doba dezinformacija. Zbornik radova sa međunarodne konferencije Udruženja za političke nauke održane 25–26.09.2021. u Beogradu",
title = "Kada kažeš „lažna vest” na šta tačno misliš? Kvalitativna analiza upotrebe izraza „lažna vest” u medijskom izveštavanju u Srbiji, What do you mean when you say "fake news"? Use of the term "fake news" in news reporting in Serbia – A qualitative analysis"
}
Markov, Č.. (2022). Kada kažeš „lažna vest” na šta tačno misliš? Kvalitativna analiza upotrebe izraza „lažna vest” u medijskom izveštavanju u Srbiji. in Građani u doba dezinformacija. Zbornik radova sa međunarodne konferencije Udruženja za političke nauke održane 25–26.09.2021. u Beogradu
Beograd: Udruženje za političke nauke Srbije..
Markov Č. Kada kažeš „lažna vest” na šta tačno misliš? Kvalitativna analiza upotrebe izraza „lažna vest” u medijskom izveštavanju u Srbiji. in Građani u doba dezinformacija. Zbornik radova sa međunarodne konferencije Udruženja za političke nauke održane 25–26.09.2021. u Beogradu. 2022;..
Markov, Čedomir, "Kada kažeš „lažna vest” na šta tačno misliš? Kvalitativna analiza upotrebe izraza „lažna vest” u medijskom izveštavanju u Srbiji" in Građani u doba dezinformacija. Zbornik radova sa međunarodne konferencije Udruženja za političke nauke održane 25–26.09.2021. u Beogradu (2022).

Understanding the Public’s Animosity Toward News Media: Cynicism and Distrust as Related but Distinct Negative Media Perceptions

Markov, Čedomir; Min, Young

(Thousand Oaks : SAGE, 2021)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Markov, Čedomir
AU  - Min, Young
PY  - 2021
UR  - http://rifdt.instifdt.bg.ac.rs/123456789/2508
AB  - This study proposes that media distrust and cynicism are two related but distinct perceptions that indicate qualitatively different ways in which audiences relate to news media. To substantiate this, we developed a new instrument to measure media cynicism. Factor analyses showed that the indicators of media distrust and cynicism are not influenced by the same underlying dimension. Structural equation modeling indicated that while distrust appears to be predominately caused by perceived media responsiveness, media cynicism may be susceptible to a wider range of factors.
PB  - Thousand Oaks : SAGE
T2  - Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly
T1  - Understanding the Public’s Animosity Toward News Media: Cynicism and Distrust as Related but Distinct Negative Media Perceptions
SP  - 1
EP  - 27
DO  - 10.1177/10776990211061764
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Markov, Čedomir and Min, Young",
year = "2021",
abstract = "This study proposes that media distrust and cynicism are two related but distinct perceptions that indicate qualitatively different ways in which audiences relate to news media. To substantiate this, we developed a new instrument to measure media cynicism. Factor analyses showed that the indicators of media distrust and cynicism are not influenced by the same underlying dimension. Structural equation modeling indicated that while distrust appears to be predominately caused by perceived media responsiveness, media cynicism may be susceptible to a wider range of factors.",
publisher = "Thousand Oaks : SAGE",
journal = "Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly",
title = "Understanding the Public’s Animosity Toward News Media: Cynicism and Distrust as Related but Distinct Negative Media Perceptions",
pages = "1-27",
doi = "10.1177/10776990211061764"
}
Markov, Č.,& Min, Y.. (2021). Understanding the Public’s Animosity Toward News Media: Cynicism and Distrust as Related but Distinct Negative Media Perceptions. in Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly
Thousand Oaks : SAGE., 1-27.
https://doi.org/10.1177/10776990211061764
Markov Č, Min Y. Understanding the Public’s Animosity Toward News Media: Cynicism and Distrust as Related but Distinct Negative Media Perceptions. in Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly. 2021;:1-27.
doi:10.1177/10776990211061764 .
Markov, Čedomir, Min, Young, "Understanding the Public’s Animosity Toward News Media: Cynicism and Distrust as Related but Distinct Negative Media Perceptions" in Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly (2021):1-27,
https://doi.org/10.1177/10776990211061764 . .
6
3

Diversity and age stereotypes in portrayals of older adults in popular American primetime television series

Markov, Čedomir; Yoon, Youngmin

(Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2021)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Markov, Čedomir
AU  - Yoon, Youngmin
PY  - 2021
UR  - http://rifdt.instifdt.bg.ac.rs/123456789/2507
AB  - To examine the prevalence and diversity of older adults on primetime television, and age stereotyping in these portrayals, we analysed the contents of 112 episodes of popular American television series aired between 2004 and 2018. We identified 6.6 per cent of characters as aged 65 and older – a slight improvement to the values reported in previous studies. However, older adult characters are still grossly under-represented, considering the actual proportion of older adults in the general population of the United States of America. Further, the typical older character was young-old, male, Caucasian, middleclass, able-bodied and straight – if his sexuality was referenced. Older women still face double discrimination in media representations. In addition, older adult characters with ethnicities other than Caucasian and African American are virtually invisible in primetime fiction series. Similarly, old-old characters, sexual minorities and persons with disabilities are particularly rare among older adult characters in this type of programming. Finally, portrayals of 51.9 per cent of characters included at least some elements of age stereotypes, most of which were positive. The most commonly applied positive and negative stereotypes were found to be the golden ager and the shrew, respectively. The findings are discussed in the context of the dominant discourse of ageing and the potential implications of how various social groups perceive ageing and older adults.
PB  - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press
T2  - Ageing & Society
T1  - Diversity and age stereotypes in portrayals of older adults in popular American primetime television series
IS  - 12
VL  - 41
SP  - 2747
EP  - 2767
DO  - 10.1017/S0144686X20000549
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Markov, Čedomir and Yoon, Youngmin",
year = "2021",
abstract = "To examine the prevalence and diversity of older adults on primetime television, and age stereotyping in these portrayals, we analysed the contents of 112 episodes of popular American television series aired between 2004 and 2018. We identified 6.6 per cent of characters as aged 65 and older – a slight improvement to the values reported in previous studies. However, older adult characters are still grossly under-represented, considering the actual proportion of older adults in the general population of the United States of America. Further, the typical older character was young-old, male, Caucasian, middleclass, able-bodied and straight – if his sexuality was referenced. Older women still face double discrimination in media representations. In addition, older adult characters with ethnicities other than Caucasian and African American are virtually invisible in primetime fiction series. Similarly, old-old characters, sexual minorities and persons with disabilities are particularly rare among older adult characters in this type of programming. Finally, portrayals of 51.9 per cent of characters included at least some elements of age stereotypes, most of which were positive. The most commonly applied positive and negative stereotypes were found to be the golden ager and the shrew, respectively. The findings are discussed in the context of the dominant discourse of ageing and the potential implications of how various social groups perceive ageing and older adults.",
publisher = "Cambridge : Cambridge University Press",
journal = "Ageing & Society",
title = "Diversity and age stereotypes in portrayals of older adults in popular American primetime television series",
number = "12",
volume = "41",
pages = "2747-2767",
doi = "10.1017/S0144686X20000549"
}
Markov, Č.,& Yoon, Y.. (2021). Diversity and age stereotypes in portrayals of older adults in popular American primetime television series. in Ageing & Society
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press., 41(12), 2747-2767.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X20000549
Markov Č, Yoon Y. Diversity and age stereotypes in portrayals of older adults in popular American primetime television series. in Ageing & Society. 2021;41(12):2747-2767.
doi:10.1017/S0144686X20000549 .
Markov, Čedomir, Yoon, Youngmin, "Diversity and age stereotypes in portrayals of older adults in popular American primetime television series" in Ageing & Society, 41, no. 12 (2021):2747-2767,
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X20000549 . .
2
2

The nature, origins, and consequences of media cynicism and (dis)trust in Serbia

Markov, Čedomir

(Seoul : Korea University, Graduate School, 2021)

TY  - THES
AU  - Markov, Čedomir
PY  - 2021
UR  - http://rifdt.instifdt.bg.ac.rs/123456789/2505
AB  - Scholars and pundits frequently argue that contemporary professional journalism is experiencing an unprecedented legitimacy crisis. Although the public’s dissatisfaction with news media is not a new phenomenon, its extent, manifestations, and potential democratic implications are becoming
increasingly worrisome. Extant communication scholarship typically interprets this crisis in terms of rapidly increasing media distrust. However, several conceptual and measurement issues surrounding the construct of media (dis)trust have impeded the development of a coherent theory explaining the relevance, causes, and solutions for growing public animosity toward media. Chief among these issues is the absence of a clear understanding of the nature of media distrust, which at times has been described as a reflection of the public’s probing skepticism, and at other times has been equated to a form of debilitating cynicism. 
The main argument in this dissertation is that media distrust and cynicism are two related but distinct perceptions of news media that indicate qualitatively different ways in which audiences relate to news media. Diverse theoretical and empirical evidence is presented to substantiate this argument. Combining insights from multidisciplinary research on cynicism and the study of media perceptions, this dissertation proposes a new conceptual definition of media cynicism. Here, media cynicism is defined as a generalized antagonism toward news media characterized by the belief that media actors are motivated exclusively by self-interests and pessimistic views that journalism could not be improved. Based on this definition, a new set of indicators was developed to measure media cynicism. This made it possible to compare and contrast this newly proposed measure of cynicism with the widely used instrument that measures media distrust in terms of dimensionality and relationships with external variables. 
Following a complementary mixed-methods design, both quantitative and qualitative data were gathered for analysis. Data were collected in Serbia, a transitioning democracy with recent experience with oppressive regimes. The country’s turbulent history has left a strong mark on how the media operate and how the media are perceived by audiences, making Serbia
an appropriate context to study negative media perceptions. Study 1 employed a web-based survey (N = 502) to test hypotheses relating to dimensionality, antecedents, and consequences of media distrust and cynicism. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses results consistently showed that the indicators of media distrust and cynicism are not influenced by the same underlying dimension. Further, structural equation modeling results indicated that the two perceptions could have different origins and consequences. Media (dis)trust appears to be predominately a function of perceived media professionalism, whereas media cynicism was found to be influenced by audience-related, media-related, relational, and contextual factors. The two perceptions may also indicate different ways in which citizens interact with politics and the news. Media distrust was associated with lower political trust and reduced news exposure through mainstream outlets and on social media. Cynicism, in contrast, was found to increase news engagement and exposure to the news through social media.
To complement the findings of Study 1 and elaborate on identified patterns, Study 2 adopted an audience-centric approach to explore perceptions of and experiences with news media in a more holistic manner. This was accomplished by conducting in-depth interviews (N = 20) with diverse participants. Thematic coding of the data revealed that experiences of media distrust and cynicism may differ based on the audience’s political interest, motivation, and self-efficacy. Whereas general media cynicism consistently applies to all media actors indiscriminately, partisan media cynicism only affects uncongenial outlets, and ambivalent media cynicism coexists with a relatively high  degree of empathy for newspersons. Participants typically assessed the trustworthiness of specific news outlets or groups of homogenous outlets, and many struggled to apply these assessments to more abstract targets (i.e., news media in general). Although participants commonly used normative terms when evaluating the media (e.g., objectivity, accuracy, and neutrality), many infused such terms with their own biases, indicating a gap between academic and lay understandings of professionalism and trustworthiness of the media. In some cases, participants strongly relied on their self-efficacy instead of media trust, indicating that some audiences perceive much more control over public information than is recognized in the literature. Finally, practices relating to audiences’ media repertoires, news avoidance, and news engagement were found to vary based on the expressions of media distrust and cynicism. Importantly, the findings indicated that under certain conditions, media cynicism could lead to disruptive civic behaviors. 
The findings of this dissertation have important theoretical and practical implications. In order to more precisely describe the characteristics of the crisis in audience-media relationships and understand its causes and consequences, future studies should include media cynicism when analyzing media perceptions. Moreover, this dissertation provides analytical tools that can help media practitioners and civic educators to formulate promising solutions to counter the public’s growing discontent with the media and forge democracy-supporting audience-media relationships.
AB  - 많은 학자와 전문가들은 오늘날의 저널리즘이 전례 없는 정당성 위기를 겪고 있다고 주장한다. 역사적으로 볼 때, 언론에 대한 이용자의 불만이 완전히 새로운 현상은 아니지만, 그 규모와 양상, 특히
민주주의에 끼치는 영향의 측면에서 과거와는 다른 우려를 낳고 있다. 이와 관련해 많은 연구자들이 언론과 이용자의 관계를 분석하는 과정에서 ‘미디어 냉소주의’를 ‘미디어 신뢰’ 또는 ‘미디어 불신’과
연관시켜왔다. 그러나 미디어 신뢰(또는 불신)와 미디어 냉소주의를 개념적으로 명확히 구분하지 않은 연구는 오히려 현상의 원인과 해법을 적절하게 제시하는 이론의 개발을 더디게 만들었다. 이러한 혼란은 미디어 불신 및 미디어 냉소주의의 본질적 특성을 명확하게 구분하지 못한 것에서 비롯된 것으로 보인다.
이 논문은 미디어 불신과 미디어 냉소주의가 상호 연관되면서도 질적으로 구분되는 개념이라는 점을 규명했다. 냉소주의에 대한 다학제적 이론적 접근과 뉴스 미디어에 대한 시민의 인식을 다루는
다양한 연구 결과를 바탕으로, 이 논문은 ‘미디어 냉소주의’에 대한 새로운 개념 정의를 제안했다.
이 논문이 재개념화한 미디어 냉소주의는 뉴스 미디어에 대한 일반화된 적대감을 뜻한다. 이는 언론 행위가 주로 자사이기주의적 동기에서 비롯된다는 인식과 저널리즘이 개선되기 어렵다는 비관적
태도로 구성된다. 이 연구는 하위 차원과 지표, 그리고 외적 변수들과의 관계를 중심으로 미디어 냉소주의와 미디어 불신을 비교하고 대조할 수 있었다.
이 연구는 혼합적 연구방법을 적용하여 양적, 질적 자료를 모두 수집했으며, 최근까지 억압적 정치체제를 겪었던 신생 민주국가 세르비아를 대상으로 연구를 수행했다. 세르비아가 겪은 정치사회적
굴곡은 뉴스 미디어의 작동 방식과 시민들의 미디어 인식에도 큰 영향을 미쳤으며, 이는 언론에 대한 부정적 인식을 연구하는 데에 적절한 환경을 제공했다.
<연구 1>은 온라인 설문조사(N = 502)를 통해 미디어 냉소주의와 불신에 대한 측정모델을 검증했다. 탐색적/확증적 요인 분석 결과, 미디어 냉소주의와 불신은 공통의 차원에 영향을 받지 않았으며 상이한 차원들로 구성되는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 미디어 냉소주의와 불신의 원인 및 결과에 대한 구조방정식 모형 분석도 두 개념 사이의 차별성을 확인해 주었다. 미디어 불신의 가장 큰 원인은 미디어 전문성에 대한 이용자 인식으로 나타난 반면, 미디어 냉소주의는 이용자와 미디어 관계와 이용자를 둘러싼 맥락적 요인(예컨대, 지인들의 미디어 적대감 등)에서 비롯되는 것으로 관찰됐다. 또한 미디어 냉소주의와 불신은 미디어 행위와 정치적 행위에도 상이한 결과를 초래하는 것으로 나타났다. 미디어 불신은 정치 불신을 촉진하는 한편 전통적 뉴스 이용을 감소시키는 효과를 보인 반면, 미디어 냉소주의는 소셜미디어를 통한 뉴스 이용을 높이고 뉴스 관여도를 증진하는 것으로 나타났다.
<연구 1>의 결과를 보완하고 정교화하기 위해, <연구 2>는 이용자 중심의 접근을 통해 이용자의 미디어 인식과 경험을 직접적으로 탐색했다. 이를 위해 다양한 연령대의 미디어 이용자들(N = 20)과 심층 인터뷰를 실시했다.
연구 결과, 시민들이 경험하는 미디어 냉소주의와 불신은 그들의 정치적 관심, 뉴스와 정치에 관심을 가지는 동기, 자기효능감 등에 따라 다르게 나타났다. ‘일반적 미디어 냉소주의’ 집단은 모든 언론인과 언론사를 부정적으로 인식한 반면, ‘정파적 냉소주의’ 집단은 정치적 입장이 다른 언론사에 대해서만 적대감을 나타냈다. ‘양가적 미디어 냉소주의’ 집단은 미디어에 대해 비관적 태도를 보이면서도 언론인들의 상황에 대해서는 상대적으로 높은 공감을 보였다. 인터뷰 참여자들은 특정한 뉴스 미디어의 신뢰성은 수월하게 평가했으나, 추상적 대상, 즉 뉴스 미디어 일반을 평가하는 것에는
능숙하지 않았다. 뉴스 미디어를 평가할 때 인터뷰 참여자들은 종종 규범적 용어들(예컨대, 객관성, 정확성, 혹은 중립성)을 사용했지만, 그 중 많은 사람들이 주관적이고 편향된 방식으로 각 용어를 해석하고 사용하는 것으로 나타났다. 이는 미디어 전문성과 신뢰성에 대한 학문적 이해와 보통 시민들의 인식 사이에 격차가 존재할 수 있음을 암시한다. 일부 시민들은 미디어 신뢰가 아닌 자기효능감에 의존하여 공적 정보의 객관성을 파악하고 판단하는 것으로 나타났다. 이는 선행 연구에서
제기한 것보다 더 높은 수준으로 시민들이 뉴스에 대한 자신의 통제력을 평가하고 있음을 보여준다.
더 나아가, 미디어 냉소주의나 불신의 형태에 따라 이용자들의 미디어 레퍼토리, 뉴스 회피, 뉴스 관여도 등도 달라지는 것으로 나타났다. 특히 특정 미디어 냉소주의 유형은 시민적, 사회적 소통에
매우 부정적인 영향을 주는 것으로 나타났다. 이 논문의 연구 결과는 중요한 이론적, 실천적 함의를 가진다. 무엇보다 이 연구는 이용자-미디어 관계 위기의 본질을 정확하게 이해하고 그 원인과 결과를 적절하게 설명하기 위해서 향후 연구는 냉소주의를 중심으로 시민들의 미디어 인식을 탐색해야 한다고 제안했다. 미디어에 대한 시민들의 불만에 대처하고 민주주의에 기여하는 방식으로 미디어와 이용자 관계를 개선하기 위해, 미디어 전문가와 시민 교육자들은 이 논문의 분석적 도구를 유용하게 활용할 수 있을 것이다.
PB  - Seoul : Korea University, Graduate School
T1  - The nature, origins, and consequences of media cynicism and (dis)trust in Serbia
ER  - 
@phdthesis{
author = "Markov, Čedomir",
year = "2021",
abstract = "Scholars and pundits frequently argue that contemporary professional journalism is experiencing an unprecedented legitimacy crisis. Although the public’s dissatisfaction with news media is not a new phenomenon, its extent, manifestations, and potential democratic implications are becoming
increasingly worrisome. Extant communication scholarship typically interprets this crisis in terms of rapidly increasing media distrust. However, several conceptual and measurement issues surrounding the construct of media (dis)trust have impeded the development of a coherent theory explaining the relevance, causes, and solutions for growing public animosity toward media. Chief among these issues is the absence of a clear understanding of the nature of media distrust, which at times has been described as a reflection of the public’s probing skepticism, and at other times has been equated to a form of debilitating cynicism. 
The main argument in this dissertation is that media distrust and cynicism are two related but distinct perceptions of news media that indicate qualitatively different ways in which audiences relate to news media. Diverse theoretical and empirical evidence is presented to substantiate this argument. Combining insights from multidisciplinary research on cynicism and the study of media perceptions, this dissertation proposes a new conceptual definition of media cynicism. Here, media cynicism is defined as a generalized antagonism toward news media characterized by the belief that media actors are motivated exclusively by self-interests and pessimistic views that journalism could not be improved. Based on this definition, a new set of indicators was developed to measure media cynicism. This made it possible to compare and contrast this newly proposed measure of cynicism with the widely used instrument that measures media distrust in terms of dimensionality and relationships with external variables. 
Following a complementary mixed-methods design, both quantitative and qualitative data were gathered for analysis. Data were collected in Serbia, a transitioning democracy with recent experience with oppressive regimes. The country’s turbulent history has left a strong mark on how the media operate and how the media are perceived by audiences, making Serbia
an appropriate context to study negative media perceptions. Study 1 employed a web-based survey (N = 502) to test hypotheses relating to dimensionality, antecedents, and consequences of media distrust and cynicism. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses results consistently showed that the indicators of media distrust and cynicism are not influenced by the same underlying dimension. Further, structural equation modeling results indicated that the two perceptions could have different origins and consequences. Media (dis)trust appears to be predominately a function of perceived media professionalism, whereas media cynicism was found to be influenced by audience-related, media-related, relational, and contextual factors. The two perceptions may also indicate different ways in which citizens interact with politics and the news. Media distrust was associated with lower political trust and reduced news exposure through mainstream outlets and on social media. Cynicism, in contrast, was found to increase news engagement and exposure to the news through social media.
To complement the findings of Study 1 and elaborate on identified patterns, Study 2 adopted an audience-centric approach to explore perceptions of and experiences with news media in a more holistic manner. This was accomplished by conducting in-depth interviews (N = 20) with diverse participants. Thematic coding of the data revealed that experiences of media distrust and cynicism may differ based on the audience’s political interest, motivation, and self-efficacy. Whereas general media cynicism consistently applies to all media actors indiscriminately, partisan media cynicism only affects uncongenial outlets, and ambivalent media cynicism coexists with a relatively high  degree of empathy for newspersons. Participants typically assessed the trustworthiness of specific news outlets or groups of homogenous outlets, and many struggled to apply these assessments to more abstract targets (i.e., news media in general). Although participants commonly used normative terms when evaluating the media (e.g., objectivity, accuracy, and neutrality), many infused such terms with their own biases, indicating a gap between academic and lay understandings of professionalism and trustworthiness of the media. In some cases, participants strongly relied on their self-efficacy instead of media trust, indicating that some audiences perceive much more control over public information than is recognized in the literature. Finally, practices relating to audiences’ media repertoires, news avoidance, and news engagement were found to vary based on the expressions of media distrust and cynicism. Importantly, the findings indicated that under certain conditions, media cynicism could lead to disruptive civic behaviors. 
The findings of this dissertation have important theoretical and practical implications. In order to more precisely describe the characteristics of the crisis in audience-media relationships and understand its causes and consequences, future studies should include media cynicism when analyzing media perceptions. Moreover, this dissertation provides analytical tools that can help media practitioners and civic educators to formulate promising solutions to counter the public’s growing discontent with the media and forge democracy-supporting audience-media relationships., 많은 학자와 전문가들은 오늘날의 저널리즘이 전례 없는 정당성 위기를 겪고 있다고 주장한다. 역사적으로 볼 때, 언론에 대한 이용자의 불만이 완전히 새로운 현상은 아니지만, 그 규모와 양상, 특히
민주주의에 끼치는 영향의 측면에서 과거와는 다른 우려를 낳고 있다. 이와 관련해 많은 연구자들이 언론과 이용자의 관계를 분석하는 과정에서 ‘미디어 냉소주의’를 ‘미디어 신뢰’ 또는 ‘미디어 불신’과
연관시켜왔다. 그러나 미디어 신뢰(또는 불신)와 미디어 냉소주의를 개념적으로 명확히 구분하지 않은 연구는 오히려 현상의 원인과 해법을 적절하게 제시하는 이론의 개발을 더디게 만들었다. 이러한 혼란은 미디어 불신 및 미디어 냉소주의의 본질적 특성을 명확하게 구분하지 못한 것에서 비롯된 것으로 보인다.
이 논문은 미디어 불신과 미디어 냉소주의가 상호 연관되면서도 질적으로 구분되는 개념이라는 점을 규명했다. 냉소주의에 대한 다학제적 이론적 접근과 뉴스 미디어에 대한 시민의 인식을 다루는
다양한 연구 결과를 바탕으로, 이 논문은 ‘미디어 냉소주의’에 대한 새로운 개념 정의를 제안했다.
이 논문이 재개념화한 미디어 냉소주의는 뉴스 미디어에 대한 일반화된 적대감을 뜻한다. 이는 언론 행위가 주로 자사이기주의적 동기에서 비롯된다는 인식과 저널리즘이 개선되기 어렵다는 비관적
태도로 구성된다. 이 연구는 하위 차원과 지표, 그리고 외적 변수들과의 관계를 중심으로 미디어 냉소주의와 미디어 불신을 비교하고 대조할 수 있었다.
이 연구는 혼합적 연구방법을 적용하여 양적, 질적 자료를 모두 수집했으며, 최근까지 억압적 정치체제를 겪었던 신생 민주국가 세르비아를 대상으로 연구를 수행했다. 세르비아가 겪은 정치사회적
굴곡은 뉴스 미디어의 작동 방식과 시민들의 미디어 인식에도 큰 영향을 미쳤으며, 이는 언론에 대한 부정적 인식을 연구하는 데에 적절한 환경을 제공했다.
<연구 1>은 온라인 설문조사(N = 502)를 통해 미디어 냉소주의와 불신에 대한 측정모델을 검증했다. 탐색적/확증적 요인 분석 결과, 미디어 냉소주의와 불신은 공통의 차원에 영향을 받지 않았으며 상이한 차원들로 구성되는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 미디어 냉소주의와 불신의 원인 및 결과에 대한 구조방정식 모형 분석도 두 개념 사이의 차별성을 확인해 주었다. 미디어 불신의 가장 큰 원인은 미디어 전문성에 대한 이용자 인식으로 나타난 반면, 미디어 냉소주의는 이용자와 미디어 관계와 이용자를 둘러싼 맥락적 요인(예컨대, 지인들의 미디어 적대감 등)에서 비롯되는 것으로 관찰됐다. 또한 미디어 냉소주의와 불신은 미디어 행위와 정치적 행위에도 상이한 결과를 초래하는 것으로 나타났다. 미디어 불신은 정치 불신을 촉진하는 한편 전통적 뉴스 이용을 감소시키는 효과를 보인 반면, 미디어 냉소주의는 소셜미디어를 통한 뉴스 이용을 높이고 뉴스 관여도를 증진하는 것으로 나타났다.
<연구 1>의 결과를 보완하고 정교화하기 위해, <연구 2>는 이용자 중심의 접근을 통해 이용자의 미디어 인식과 경험을 직접적으로 탐색했다. 이를 위해 다양한 연령대의 미디어 이용자들(N = 20)과 심층 인터뷰를 실시했다.
연구 결과, 시민들이 경험하는 미디어 냉소주의와 불신은 그들의 정치적 관심, 뉴스와 정치에 관심을 가지는 동기, 자기효능감 등에 따라 다르게 나타났다. ‘일반적 미디어 냉소주의’ 집단은 모든 언론인과 언론사를 부정적으로 인식한 반면, ‘정파적 냉소주의’ 집단은 정치적 입장이 다른 언론사에 대해서만 적대감을 나타냈다. ‘양가적 미디어 냉소주의’ 집단은 미디어에 대해 비관적 태도를 보이면서도 언론인들의 상황에 대해서는 상대적으로 높은 공감을 보였다. 인터뷰 참여자들은 특정한 뉴스 미디어의 신뢰성은 수월하게 평가했으나, 추상적 대상, 즉 뉴스 미디어 일반을 평가하는 것에는
능숙하지 않았다. 뉴스 미디어를 평가할 때 인터뷰 참여자들은 종종 규범적 용어들(예컨대, 객관성, 정확성, 혹은 중립성)을 사용했지만, 그 중 많은 사람들이 주관적이고 편향된 방식으로 각 용어를 해석하고 사용하는 것으로 나타났다. 이는 미디어 전문성과 신뢰성에 대한 학문적 이해와 보통 시민들의 인식 사이에 격차가 존재할 수 있음을 암시한다. 일부 시민들은 미디어 신뢰가 아닌 자기효능감에 의존하여 공적 정보의 객관성을 파악하고 판단하는 것으로 나타났다. 이는 선행 연구에서
제기한 것보다 더 높은 수준으로 시민들이 뉴스에 대한 자신의 통제력을 평가하고 있음을 보여준다.
더 나아가, 미디어 냉소주의나 불신의 형태에 따라 이용자들의 미디어 레퍼토리, 뉴스 회피, 뉴스 관여도 등도 달라지는 것으로 나타났다. 특히 특정 미디어 냉소주의 유형은 시민적, 사회적 소통에
매우 부정적인 영향을 주는 것으로 나타났다. 이 논문의 연구 결과는 중요한 이론적, 실천적 함의를 가진다. 무엇보다 이 연구는 이용자-미디어 관계 위기의 본질을 정확하게 이해하고 그 원인과 결과를 적절하게 설명하기 위해서 향후 연구는 냉소주의를 중심으로 시민들의 미디어 인식을 탐색해야 한다고 제안했다. 미디어에 대한 시민들의 불만에 대처하고 민주주의에 기여하는 방식으로 미디어와 이용자 관계를 개선하기 위해, 미디어 전문가와 시민 교육자들은 이 논문의 분석적 도구를 유용하게 활용할 수 있을 것이다.",
publisher = "Seoul : Korea University, Graduate School",
title = "The nature, origins, and consequences of media cynicism and (dis)trust in Serbia"
}
Markov, Č.. (2021). The nature, origins, and consequences of media cynicism and (dis)trust in Serbia. 
Seoul : Korea University, Graduate School..
Markov Č. The nature, origins, and consequences of media cynicism and (dis)trust in Serbia. 2021;..
Markov, Čedomir, "The nature, origins, and consequences of media cynicism and (dis)trust in Serbia" (2021).

Media literacy in the digital environment: Perspectives, challenges, and potentials for audiences In Serbia

Markov, Čedomir; Krstić, Aleksandra

(Belgrade : Faculty of Dramatic Arts, Institute for Theatre, Film, Radio and Television, 2021)

TY  - CONF
AU  - Markov, Čedomir
AU  - Krstić, Aleksandra
PY  - 2021
UR  - http://rifdt.instifdt.bg.ac.rs/123456789/2504
AB  - Recent public opinion polls indicate that the public’s distrust in traditional news media is on the rise and that citizens increasingly turn to alternative information sources in the digital environment.
Professional journalism—burdened by a multifaceted crisis—faces the challenge of maintaining a central position in the public information process. In this environment, media audiences may themselves produce media content and perform some journalistic functions, such as selection and verification of the news. These processes have the potential to contribute to the democratization
of public information and to improve the critical capacity of citizens, which could help the public resist manipulation attempts from various political actors and organized interests. In such a context, improving media literacy is often discussed as a panacea for democratic challenges in the digital environment in both academic and media discourses. Similar to other countries, the popularity of media literacy programs in both formal and informal education is on the rise in Serbia. Recent empirical research shows that such programs are not a universal remedy and that their success is contingent on careful planning and setting realistic goals. The first aim of this study is to offer a critical review of the literature on media literacy focusing on theoretical and methodological diversity, as well as on the empirical findings regarding intervention effects. Based on this analysis, we will propose a research agenda with the aim of bridging the works of practitioners and researchers in order to increase the potential of future media literacy programs to improve the civic capacities of digital audiences in Serbia.
PB  - Belgrade : Faculty of Dramatic Arts, Institute for Theatre, Film, Radio and Television
C3  - Creativity and Innovations in Theatre, Media and Cultural Productions: Visions and Values for the Future. Book of abstracts
T1  - Media literacy in the digital environment: Perspectives, challenges, and potentials for audiences In Serbia
SP  - 85
EP  - 86
ER  - 
@conference{
author = "Markov, Čedomir and Krstić, Aleksandra",
year = "2021",
abstract = "Recent public opinion polls indicate that the public’s distrust in traditional news media is on the rise and that citizens increasingly turn to alternative information sources in the digital environment.
Professional journalism—burdened by a multifaceted crisis—faces the challenge of maintaining a central position in the public information process. In this environment, media audiences may themselves produce media content and perform some journalistic functions, such as selection and verification of the news. These processes have the potential to contribute to the democratization
of public information and to improve the critical capacity of citizens, which could help the public resist manipulation attempts from various political actors and organized interests. In such a context, improving media literacy is often discussed as a panacea for democratic challenges in the digital environment in both academic and media discourses. Similar to other countries, the popularity of media literacy programs in both formal and informal education is on the rise in Serbia. Recent empirical research shows that such programs are not a universal remedy and that their success is contingent on careful planning and setting realistic goals. The first aim of this study is to offer a critical review of the literature on media literacy focusing on theoretical and methodological diversity, as well as on the empirical findings regarding intervention effects. Based on this analysis, we will propose a research agenda with the aim of bridging the works of practitioners and researchers in order to increase the potential of future media literacy programs to improve the civic capacities of digital audiences in Serbia.",
publisher = "Belgrade : Faculty of Dramatic Arts, Institute for Theatre, Film, Radio and Television",
journal = "Creativity and Innovations in Theatre, Media and Cultural Productions: Visions and Values for the Future. Book of abstracts",
title = "Media literacy in the digital environment: Perspectives, challenges, and potentials for audiences In Serbia",
pages = "85-86"
}
Markov, Č.,& Krstić, A.. (2021). Media literacy in the digital environment: Perspectives, challenges, and potentials for audiences In Serbia. in Creativity and Innovations in Theatre, Media and Cultural Productions: Visions and Values for the Future. Book of abstracts
Belgrade : Faculty of Dramatic Arts, Institute for Theatre, Film, Radio and Television., 85-86.
Markov Č, Krstić A. Media literacy in the digital environment: Perspectives, challenges, and potentials for audiences In Serbia. in Creativity and Innovations in Theatre, Media and Cultural Productions: Visions and Values for the Future. Book of abstracts. 2021;:85-86..
Markov, Čedomir, Krstić, Aleksandra, "Media literacy in the digital environment: Perspectives, challenges, and potentials for audiences In Serbia" in Creativity and Innovations in Theatre, Media and Cultural Productions: Visions and Values for the Future. Book of abstracts (2021):85-86.

The origins of media trust in a young democracy

Markov, Čedomir; Min, Young

(Pamplona : Universidad de Navarra, 2020)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Markov, Čedomir
AU  - Min, Young
PY  - 2020
UR  - http://rifdt.instifdt.bg.ac.rs/123456789/2506
AB  - Declining trust in news media has often been recognized as one of the major challenges facing modern journalism with potentially detrimental consequences for democratic processes. In this
article, we examine the predictive potential of cultural-political and performance factors on public trust in news media in the context of a young democracy. Specifically, we have analyzed to what extent citizens’ populist attitudes and perceptions of journalistic roles relate to the levels of media trust using data from an online survey of Serbian respondents (N = 200). The findings showed that support for populism did not significantly predict trust in news media in general after controlling for relevant factors, most importantly political trust. However, populist attitudes were found to be related to the amount of trust citizens have in distinct types of news media—i.e., those who support populism exhibited less trust in public broadcasters than in online news outlets. The analyses also revealed that the more Serbian citizens perceived news media as being successful at performing
interpretive and mobilizing roles, the more trust they placed in the media.
PB  - Pamplona : Universidad de Navarra
T2  - Communication & Society
T1  - The origins of media trust in a young democracy
IS  - 3
VL  - 33
SP  - 67
EP  - 84
DO  - 10.15581/003.33.3.67-84
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Markov, Čedomir and Min, Young",
year = "2020",
abstract = "Declining trust in news media has often been recognized as one of the major challenges facing modern journalism with potentially detrimental consequences for democratic processes. In this
article, we examine the predictive potential of cultural-political and performance factors on public trust in news media in the context of a young democracy. Specifically, we have analyzed to what extent citizens’ populist attitudes and perceptions of journalistic roles relate to the levels of media trust using data from an online survey of Serbian respondents (N = 200). The findings showed that support for populism did not significantly predict trust in news media in general after controlling for relevant factors, most importantly political trust. However, populist attitudes were found to be related to the amount of trust citizens have in distinct types of news media—i.e., those who support populism exhibited less trust in public broadcasters than in online news outlets. The analyses also revealed that the more Serbian citizens perceived news media as being successful at performing
interpretive and mobilizing roles, the more trust they placed in the media.",
publisher = "Pamplona : Universidad de Navarra",
journal = "Communication & Society",
title = "The origins of media trust in a young democracy",
number = "3",
volume = "33",
pages = "67-84",
doi = "10.15581/003.33.3.67-84"
}
Markov, Č.,& Min, Y.. (2020). The origins of media trust in a young democracy. in Communication & Society
Pamplona : Universidad de Navarra., 33(3), 67-84.
https://doi.org/10.15581/003.33.3.67-84
Markov Č, Min Y. The origins of media trust in a young democracy. in Communication & Society. 2020;33(3):67-84.
doi:10.15581/003.33.3.67-84 .
Markov, Čedomir, Min, Young, "The origins of media trust in a young democracy" in Communication & Society, 33, no. 3 (2020):67-84,
https://doi.org/10.15581/003.33.3.67-84 . .
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