Socijalna konstrukcija „drugog“ kao „primitivnog
Social Construction of “Other” as “Primitive”
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The author of this paper deals with the problem of cultural difference through the analysis of the relationship “us” – “others”. He searches for the answer to the question why the culture of other peoples or individuals are often considered inferior in many societies. This type of treatment leads to the extreme where the position of the “other” is reduced to the level of “primitive” (less valuable, lowly, and brutal). In such a context, the author analyzes theoretical concepts of the Enlightenment rationalism of the 18th century and the anthropological evolutionism of the 19th century, believing that the roots of the negative assessment of the “other” can be found in them. Namely, the majority of these theories conduct a hierarchization of culture according to the time and value principles, from which peoples and cultures can be classified as “primitive” and “civilized”. European modernism provided the vision of history as one of linear growth, which led to modern cultures being a prio...ri declared more valuable and culturally more sublime. However, modern cultures are also classified among themselves according to value principles. The differentiation of cultures is performed using various stereotypes, and the idea of progress as rational improvement in the sphere of material culture, science, and technology legitimizes the transformation of the different (other) into primitive. From this prejudice, according to the author, emerges the Eurocentric thought on the exclusiveness of the European culture, which latently justifies colonialism and other negative phenomena coming from the European civilization. Primitivism is being presented as an objective state, while it is, in fact, the case of a socialconstruction which has the aim of proclaiming the “other” as “primitive”.