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Enhancing cooperativeness in social dilemmas

dc.creatorLazić, Aleksandra
dc.date.accessioned2019-02-22T09:25:24Z
dc.date.available2019-02-22T09:25:24Z
dc.date.issued2016
dc.identifier.urihttps://osf.io/ryg4n/
dc.identifier.urihttp://rifdt.instifdt.bg.ac.rs/123456789/1928
dc.description.abstractSocijalna dilema je situacija u kojoj postoji sukob između interesa pojedinca i interesa kolektiva i u kojoj je pojedinac često primoran da bira između ličnog i zajedničkog dobitka. Istraživanja pokazuju da doprinos zajedničkom dobru može da se pospeši izmenom sistema raspodele dobitaka od tog dobra među članovima kolektiva, a pogotovo kažnjavanjem tzv. grebatora (eng. free-riders). Grebatori teže da maksimizuju sopstveni dobitak na uštrb ostalih članova. Pored njih, postoje i kooperatori, koji u različitoj meri odlučuju da doprinesu dobru. U ovom istraživanju ispitivali smo da li postoje individualne razlike u reakcijama na pretnju kaznom u igri koja simulira socijalnu dilemu. Pošli smo od pretpostavke da će neki igrači biti saradljivi na strateško-kalkulišući način, tj. da će oni nepošteniji, makijavelističniji, narcisoidniji, psihopatičniji i ekstravertniji biti saradljiviji kada im se zapreti kaznom, nego kada im se ne zapreti. Pored toga, pretpostavili smo da će neki igrači biti saradljivi (oni pošteniji, prijazniji, introvertniji i manje emocionalni, makijavelistični, narcisoidni i psihopatični), odnosno nesaradljivi (oni sadističniji) bez obzira na pretnju kaznom. U istraživanju je učestvovalo 105 ispitanika (prosečnog uzrasta 21 godina, 86 žena). Polovina njih je prvo igrala runde igre javnog dobra bez pretnje, pa odmah zatim sa pretnjom (n=52), a polovina obrnutim redosledom (n=53). Korelacije crta ličnosti sa preusmeravanjem ka saradljivosti, odnosno sa većim doprinosima javnom dobru pod pretnjom kaznom nisu se javile na nivou celog uzorka. Mada su korelacije registrovane na poduzorcima kojima je pretnja kaznom uvedena u različitom trenutku, one su mahom bile nedosledne i umerenog intenziteta, te su potrebne studije prihvatljivije snage na nivou poduzoraka radi izvođenja sigurnijih zaključaka. Pretnja kaznom je pospešila saradljivost na celom uzorku (t(104)=2.48, p=.015), ali je efikasnost, neočekivano, zavisila od redosleda njenog uvođenja. Igrači su bili saradljiviji kada im je bilo zaprećeno kaznom ako su prvo igrali pod pretnjom, pa zatim bez nje (t(52)=7.15, p=.000), ali ne i u obrnutom slučaju. Rezultati su diskutovani posebno u svetlu fenomena tzv. uslovne saradljivosti i razmatrane su njihove implikacije za intervencije u socijalnom okruženju. Pored toga, predloženo je da se u budućim istraživanjima uključe i makroekonomski i makrosocijalni činioci, koji bi mogli da snažnije utiču na doprinos javnom dobru u situacijama socijalne dileme, i to povrh ili uprkos ličnosti pojedinca.sr
dc.description.abstractSocial dilemma is a situation of a conflict between self-interest and collective interest, in which a person is often forced to choose between personal and collective gain. Research shows that contributions to the collective good can be enhanced by a change in the payoff structure and especially by punishing free-riders. Free-riders tend to maximize their personal gain, while profiting off of others’ cooperation. In contrast to them, cooperators are willing to contribute to the collective good. In the current research, we examined whether there are individual differences in the reaction to the punishment threat in a social dilemma simulation game. Our hypothesis was that some players (i.e., those low in Honesty, high in Machiavellianism, Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Extraversion) will cooperate in a calculating manner, strategically shifting to cooperation when threatened with punishment. Also, we hypothesized that some players will be cooperators (i.e., those high in Honesty, Agreeableness, and Introversion, and low in Emotionality, Machiavellianism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy) or free-riders (i.e., those high in Sadism), regardless of the threat of punishment. The research sample included 105 participants (average age: 21 years, 86 women). Half of them played the Public Goods game without the punishment option and then with it (n=52); for the other half the order of the games was reversed (n=53). In the sample as a whole, there were no correlations between cooperation shift or contribution to the public good and personality traits. Although significant correlations were found in the subsamples in which the punishment threat was introduced before or after the no-punishment condition, such correlations were inconsistent and only of moderate strength; therefore, stronger studies are needed in order to draw more reliable conclusions. In the sample as a whole, the punishment threat enhanced cooperativeness (t(104)=2.48, p=.015); but its effectiveness, surprisingly, depended on the order in which it was introduced. Players were more cooperative under the threat of punishment if they played the punishment game before the no-punishment game (t(52)=7.15, p=.000); this was not the case when the order of the games was reversed. We discuss the results in the light of the findings on conditional cooperation and we consider their implications for interventions in the social environment. In addition, we suggest that future research include macroeconomic and macrosocial factors, which could more strongly affect public good contributions in a social dilemma situation, on top of or even despite the personality of the players.en
dc.language.isosrsr
dc.publisherBeograd : Univerzitet u Beogradu, Filozofski fakultet, Odeljenje za psihologijusr
dc.rightsopenAccesssr
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
dc.subjectsocijalne dilemesr
dc.subjectigra javnog dobrasr
dc.subjectsocial dilemmassr
dc.subjectpublic goods gamesr
dc.subjectcooperationsr
dc.subjectkooperacijasr
dc.subjectsaradnjasr
dc.subjectHEXACOsr
dc.subjectcrna tetradasr
dc.subjectdark tetradsr
dc.titlePospešivanje saradljivosti u socijalnim dilemamasr
dc.titleEnhancing cooperativeness in social dilemmasen
dc.typemasterThesissr
dc.rights.licenseBY-NC-NDsr
dcterms.abstractЛазић, Aлександра; Енханцинг цооперативенесс ин социал дилеммас; Енханцинг цооперативенесс ин социал дилеммас; Поспешивање сарадљивости у социјалним дилемама : мастер рад; Поспешивање сарадљивости у социјалним дилемама : мастер рад;
dc.description.otherData availability. The raw data are available at https://osf.io/4gt3e/ / Baza podataka istraživanja je dostupna na https://osf.io/4gt3e/en
dc.type.versionpublishedVersionsr
dc.identifier.fulltexthttp://rifdt.instifdt.bg.ac.rs/bitstream/id/4415/fulltext.pdf


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